Who’s included and Who’s not? An analysis of instruments that measure teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education


In this paper, inclusive education was understood as the right of all students to access, presence, participation and success in their local school (Slee, 2018).

With a focus on teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education, the measurement instruments in 225 relevant empirical studies were examined.

The findings showed that the vast majority of instruments utilised exclusionary wording focusing on particular (groups of) learners. There was no ideal instrument which was purely inclusive.

It was concluded that there is an urgent need for a new measurement instrument that operationalises the attitude towards inclusive education for all students.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2022.103922